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Glossary

A
Acidity
Alkalinity
Allergens
Alluvial Plain
Animal Damage
Apical
Aquatics
Artificial Night Lighting
Atopy
Attractive to Wildlife
B
Backslope
Biological Indicator
Bracts
Branching Habit
Broadleaf
C
Calcareous
Cambium
Carbonates
Chlorosis
Chlorotic
Cold Injury
Common Name
Composites
Contracted Panicle
Crown
Crozier
D
Daily Sunlight
Deciduous
Dehisce
Depressional Soils
Disease Concerns
Disease Susceptibility
Drainage
Drought Tolerance
Duration of Flooding
E
Ease to Establish
Ease of Planting
Edaphic
Epinasty
Evapo-transpiration
Evergreen
Evergreen/Deciduous
F
Fall Foliage Color
Field Moisture Capacity
Floodplain
Flower Color
Flower Month
Flower Period
Flower Season
Foliage Color
Forb
Fragipan
Frost Shake
Fruit Color
Fruit Month
Fruit Season
Fruit Period
Fruit Type
G
Growth Habit
Growth Rate
Growing Season
H
Hardpan
Herbicide Usage
Hydric
Hydrocarbons
I
Imbricated
Indehiscent
Inflorescence
Insect Concerns
Insect Damage Susceptibility
Inslope
Inter-veinal
Invasiveness
J
K
L
Leaf Margin
Legumes
Life Expectancy
Life Span
Limiting Layer
M
Maintenance Requirements
Mantle
Mesic
Minimum Depth to Water Table
Moisture Regime
Mottling
Mycorrhizae
N
Native
Necrosis
Nodulating Bacteria
O
Open Panicle
Ovary
Oxidants
P
Permeability
Pest Concerns
Petiole
Phenoxy
Phloem
Photochemical
Phototoxic
Physiographic
Phytotoxic
Pistil
Place of Origin
Plant Community
Plant Height
Plant Spread
Pollution Sensitivity
Ponding
Post-emergence
Pre-emergence
Primary Branches
Q
R
Reproduce More Freely
Rhizome
Root Pattern
Root Type
Root Zone
S
Saline
Salt Spray
Scarification
Scientific Name
Shrub Form
Site Orientation
Small Grain
Soil Compaction
Soil pH
Soil Salt Content
Soil Texture
Soil Water Holding Capacity
Spike
Spring Foliage Color
Stand Persistence
Sterilant
Stolon
Storm Damage
Stratification
Successional
Successional Occurrence
Summer Foliage Color
Summer Texture
Sunscald
Superphosphate Fertilizer
Suture
Sweating
T
Textures
Tip Dieback
Topography
Toxicity
Translocated
Tree Form
Triclopyr (Garlon)
Trimec
Trunk Diameter
Trunk Flare
Type I Hypersensitivity
U
USDA Hardiness Zone Map
Utility Lines
V W

Wilting Point
Windbreak Suitability
Winter Browning
Winter Foliage Color
Winter Texture
Woody
X
Xeric
Xylem
Y
Z



Acidity

The measure of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. A pH number of less than 7 indicates acidity.

Alkalinity

The measure of the hydroxyl ion activity in a solution. A pH number of greater than 7 indicates alkalinity.

Allergens

A non-parasitic antigen, such as a pollen, capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals.

Alluvial Plain

Sediment deposited by flowing water, forming a new land area at the mouth of a stream or river.

Animal Damage

Animals pose specific threats to plants. Select those animal(s) with known local populations. This assumes that population levels are not excessively high, such as a deer yard in winter.
Deer -- Signs of deer damage include rubbed-off bark and branch tips and/or foliage chewed off at a 90 degree angle.
Rabbit/Hares -- Signs of rabbit/hare damage include stems girdled at the snow line and branch tips chewed off at a 45 degree angle.
Mice/Voles -- Signs of mouse/vole damage include stems girdled at the ground level and a series of shallow underground tunnels or above-ground runways that kill the grass.
Pocket Gophers -- Signs of pocket gopher damage include above-ground soil mounds, tipping plants, and plants that pull out of the ground easily because much of the root system has been chewed off.

Apical

Of, at, or forming the apex. The apex is the tip or point of anything.

Aquatics

Plants that live or grow in water. Aquatics grow in an area know as the littoral zone—the shallow zone between dry land and the open water area of a lake. In Minnesota waters, the littoral zone extends from the shore to a depth of about 15 feet, depending on water clarity. The zone width varies, depending upon whether the shoreline slopes are steep or shallow. There are four major aquatic plant categories, each favoring a certain water depth; however, the growing areas may overlap. Plant growth can vary greatly from lake to lake and even within a lake. Aquatic plants provide food and habitat for many animals.

Aquatic plant categories are:
Algae have no true roots, stems, or leaves and range in size from tiny one-celled organisms to large, multi-celled plant-like organisms. There are different types of algae, some grow only in the littoral zone, while others grow beyond in well-lit surface waters of an entire lake. Examples: Spirogyra (filamentous algae).
Submerged plants have stems and leaves that grow entirely underwater, although some may also have floating leaves. Flowers and seeds on short stems that extend above the water may also be present. They grow from near the shore to the deepest part of the littoral zone. Depending on the species, they may form a low growing “meadow” near the lake bottom, grow with lots of open space between plant stems, or form dense stands or mats. Examples: Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) and Vallisneria americana (wild celery).
Floating-leaf plants are often rooted in the lake bottom, but their leaves and flowers float on the water surface. They grow in protected areas where there is little wave action. Example: Nymphaea sp. (white water lily) and Nelumbo lutea (yellow lotus).
Emergent plants are rooted in the lake bottom, but their leaves and stems extend out of the water. They typically grow in wetlands and along shorelines where water is less than four feet deep. Examples: Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail) and scirpus sp. (bulrush).

Artificial Night Lighting

An artificial light source that can affect the growth, survival, and aesthetic appearance of plants. There are many different types of lights, including mercury vapor, high-pressure sodium vapor, incandescent, metal halide, and fluorescent. Some plants are sensitive to one light type and not another. A primary symptom of adverse light effects is extending many plants’ growth, thereby delaying dormancy and proper hardening off. As a result, plants are susceptible to autumn frosts and winter cold injury.
Tolerant -- The plant readily recovers or shows no signs of damage.
Intermediate -- The plant shows sign of injury or stress, but has no permanent damage.
Sensitive -- The plant is severely damaged.

Atopy

A genetic predisposition toward developing certain hypersensitivity reactions, such as hay fever, asthma, or chronic skin conditions, upon exposure to specific antigens.

Attractive to Wildlife

Attractive to Wildlife refers to the plants ability to attract insects and animals to it for food and pollen, based on the plants flowers, fruit and/or scent.
Low – Flowers and fruit are minimal on the plant.
Moderate – The plant attracts some animals by it flowers or fruit but the seasons may be short lived.
High- The plant has flowers and/or fruit that is desirable to many types of animals.

Backslope

The area between the bottom of the ditch and the edge of the right of way in a cut section of a highway or railroad corridor.

Biological Indicator (bio-indicator)

Multiple measures typically used to assess the effects of environmental stresses on an organism’s health.

Bracts

A much reduced leaf, often scale-like and usually associated with a flower or flower cluster.

Branching Habit

The branching habit is the predominant shape of the crown of the tree; relating to what the branch attachments look like: wide angle vs. narrow, included bark, etc.

Broadleaf

Dicotyledonous (two seed leaves) plants that have broad leaves with netted-venation.

Calcareous

Limy, rich in calcium, usually in the form of calcium carbonates.

Cambium

Growth tissue that produces the conducting tissues, xylem and phloem.

Carbonates

A salt of carbonic acid that is formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide and water with soil elements such as calcium (CaCO3) and magnesium (Mg).

Chlorosis

General yellowing of a leaf. The loss of green color (chlorophyll) from foliage.

Chlorotic

A plant symptom showing the effect of chlorosis.

Cold Injury

Cold injury includes frost crack, frost shake, winter browning, sun scald, tip dieback, and flower bud dieback. Cold injury may or may not affect a plant’s shape, form, or vigor.
Infrequent -- The plant rarely sustains injury, even during extremely cold or open winters.
Moderate -- The plant sustains injury during extremely cold or open winters, but the injury does not affect the shape, form, and/or vigor.
Frequent -- The plant sustains injury during extremely cold or open winters, and the injury does affect the shape, form, and/or vigor.

Common Name

Plants may have multiple common names, which is often a source for confusion. For example, silver maple is also known as soft maple. In this matrix, we chose the most widely accepted name used in Minnesota, in this case: silver maple. Common names should be written in lower case letters (silver maple) unless part of the name is proper (Japanese tree lilac) and then capitalize only the first letter of the proper noun.

Composites

Pertaining to the family Asteraceae. Composite flowers are aggregated into heads consisting of a few or many flowers clustered together.

Contracted Panicle

An elongated inflorescence (flower cluster) with compound branching that has a compact appearance. Example: Andropogon gerardi (big bluestem).

Crown

The crown of woody plants is the totality of branches, twigs and leaves extending from the trunk or main stems that has foliage attached to it. This does not include water sprouts or root suckers.

Crozier

A tightly coiled fern frond (leaf) as it first appears in the spring. The new growth resembles a bishop’s staff (or crozier). Also known as a fiddlehead.

Daily Sunlight

Daily sunlight is a measure of the average amount of sunlight the site receives and the amount a plant needs or tolerates. Sunlight will vary according to surrounding vegetation, buildings, or other shade-casting structures.
Sun -- There are no structures and/or surrounding vegetation to limit the amount of sunlight that reaches the plant. Plants require, or can tolerate, eight or more hours of sun per day for normal growth.
Partial Sun -- Structures and/or surrounding vegetation limits the amount of sunlight available for the plant. Plants require, or can tolerate, four to eight hours of sun per day for normal growth.
Shade -- Structures and/or surrounding vegetation allows only indirect sunlight to reach the plant. Plants require, or can tolerate, fewer than four hours of sun per day for normal growth.

Deciduous

Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off" and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves in the fall and have bare branches in the winter.

Dehisce

To split open at maturity; releasing or exposing the contents. Commonly applied to seeds or pods.

Depressional Soils

Soils in sunken areas, whether part of the natural landform or created by equipment or animal compaction.

Disease Concerns

See Pest Concerns.

Disease Susceptibility

Some diseases may be life-threatening and/or may cause aesthetic problems requiring routine or extensive treatments. Some plants are more susceptible to disease than others.
Minor -- Diseases may occur but are not considered life-threatening. Examples: powdery mildew and anthracnose.
Major -- Diseases may cause aesthetic problems requiring routine or extensive treatments. Examples: fireblight and Dutch elm disease.

Drainage

Drainage is a measure of the site’s ability to hold water.
Poor -- Water drains slowly or not at all from the soil and interferes with root development. The soil has a combination of the following features:
* Heavy-textured soil.
* Depressed areas that collect water.
* Water table is located within the root zone.
* Areas are prone to water seepage.
* Located within a flood plain.
* Soil hardpan within the root zone.
* Visible standing water on the surface.
* Soil mottling.
Moderate -- Water is removed from the soil and doesn’t interfere with root development, yet is available to plants throughout the growing season. The site has a combination of the following features:
* Medium-textured soil.
* Nearly level slopes.
* No soil mottling.
Excessive -- Water is not readily available to plants during the growing season. The site has a combination of the following features:
* Course-textured soil.
* Found on slopes prone to water runoff.
* Unprotected south and west exposures, which are prone to increased evapo-transpiration.
* No soil mottling.

Drought Tolerance

Many plants will tolerate periodic dry growing conditions once established.
Tolerant -- The plant is able to avoid or tolerate periodic and prolonged dry growing conditions.
Intolerant -- The plant is not able to avoid or tolerate periodic and prolonged dry growing conditions.

Duration of Flooding

Duration of flooding is a measure of how long a site sustains standing water during a growing season.
1 Growing Season (Tolerant Plants) -- The site is prone to regular flooding or has the potential of standing water for one growing season.
<= 30 Days (Moderate Plants) -- The site is prone to occasional flooding or has the potential of standing water for 30 consecutive days during the growing season.
<= 2 Days (Intolerant Plants) -- The site is neither prone to occasional flooding nor to having standing water for more than two consecutive days during the growing season.

Ease to Establish

Plants require different levels of effort to become established and ensure long-term health and vigor. MnDOT’s spring and fall transplanting seasons are illustrated in the Optimum Planting Date Zones map.

Spring Bareroot
Easy -- Plants rapidly adapt to the soil conditions and readily generate new roots. The survival percentage is usually 75-100% with minimal maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Moderate -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 50-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Difficult -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 25-75%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.). Plants may require sweating or root stimulators to improve survival.

Fall Bareroot
Easy -- Plants rapidly adapt to the soil conditions and readily generate new roots. The survival percentage is usually 75-100% with minimal maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Moderate -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 50-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Difficult -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 25-50%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.). Due to low survival rates, most of these plants are not recommended for fall planting.

Spring Container
Easy -- Plants rapidly adapt to the soil conditions and readily generate new roots. The survival percentage is usually 90-100% with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Moderate -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 75-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Difficult -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 60-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).

Fall Container
Easy -- Plants rapidly adapt to the soil conditions and readily generate new roots. The survival percentage is usually 90-100% with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Moderate -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 75-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Difficult -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 60-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).

Spring B&B (balled & burlapped)
Easy -- Plants rapidly adapt to the soil conditions and readily generate new roots. The survival percentage is usually 75-100% with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Moderate -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 50-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Difficult -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 25-75%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).

Fall B&B (balled & burlapped)
Easy -- Plants rapidly adapt to the soil conditions and readily generate new roots. The survival percentage is usually 75-100% with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Moderate -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 50-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).
Difficult -- Plants are slow to adapt to the soil conditions and survival is usually 60-100%, even with basic maintenance (fertilization, watering, etc.).

Spring Seed
Easy -- 50-100% of pure live seeds germinate and establish easily without stratification during the first growing season.
Moderate -- 25-50% of pure live seeds germinate and establish with or without stratification during the first growing season. Germination percentage increases when pre-treatments are applied.
Difficult -- 0-25% of pure live seeds germinate during the first growing season due to embryo and/or seed coat dormancy. Germination percentages increase with pre-treatments such as boiling or acid scarification, cold storage, or adding mycorrhizae, nodulating bacteria or other beneficial microbes.

Fall (Dormant) Seed
Easy -- 50-100% of pure live seeds germinate and establish easily without stratification during the next growing season.
Moderate -- 25-50% of pure live seeds germinate and establish with or without stratification during the next growing season. Germination percentage increases when pre-treatments are applied.
Difficult -- 0-25% of pure live seeds germinate during the next growing season due to embryo and/or seed coat dormancy. Germination percentages increase with pre-treatments such as certain moisture, temperature and light treatments, or adding mycorrhizae, nodulating bacteria or other beneficial microbes.

Ease of Planting

Determines the plants ability to establish based on the time of the year it is planted. Soil temperature, plant type (container, bare root, balled and burlapped) effect ease of planting. Some plants establish better from seed.

Edaphic

Due to soil or topography, rather than climate.

Epinasty

Commonly known as witches broom. Rapid growth, particularly elongation, of the upper side of a plant causing curling or bending downwards.

Evapo-transpiration

Moisture loss by evaporation from land and water surfaces and by transpiration from plants.

Evergreen

In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant having leaves all year round. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage for part of the year. See Coniferous.

Evergreen/Deciduous

Evergreen - Having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year.
Deciduous - Shedding or losing foliage at the end of the growing season.

Fall Foliage Color

The fall foliage season is from September 15 to December 15.
Green
Light Green
Dark Green
Yellow Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Purple
Brown
Gray
Bronze
Maroon
Insignificant
Not Applicable

Field Moisture Capacity

The amount of water remaining in a soil after it has been fully saturated and all gravitational (free) water has drained away, usually within a day or two. This is water available for use by plants. Field moisture capacity is expressed as a percentage.

Floodplain

A nearly level alluvial plain that borders a stream and is subject to flooding.

Flower Color

Flower color is based on the most noticeable color of either the male or female flower. Large or significant numbers of flowers will affect a plant's appearance.
Red
Blue
Brown
Green
Yellow
Rust
White
Silver
Gray
Purple
Pink
Orange
Insignificant

Flower Month

This is the peak month for flowering.

Flower Season

This is the peak season for flowering.

Flower Period

This is the time of the year the plant will flower. The times are approximate. Some plants may flower in more than one season.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October

Foliage Color

This is the color of the leaves and/or needles. This color may vary by season.

Forb

Any herb that is not a grass or grasslike.

Fragipan

A dense and brittle pan or layer in soils which owes its hardness mainly to extreme density or compactness rather than high clay content or cementation.

Frost Shake

Longitudinal cracks in trees that usually occur in the bark or wood parallel to the grain or extending to the center of the trunk. Also called ring or star shake.

Fruit Color

Fruit colors complement many plantings.
Purple
Red
White
Orange
Yellow
Black
Blue
Light Brown
Dark Brown
Tan
Maroon
Gray

Fruit Month

This is the peak month for bearing fruit.

Fruit Season

This is the peak season for bearing fruit.

Fruit Period

The period when fruit typically matures and persists on the fruiting stalk. Some plants bear fruit through more than one season.
Spring
Summer
Fall
Winter

Fruit Type

In addition to attracting wildlife (see below), fruits contribute to the overall appearance of the tree.
Achene -- A small, dry, one-celled, unwinged fruit that does not open when ripe. Example: Rosa sp. (rose).
Aril -- A fleshy appendage growing from the point of attachment of the seed. Example: Taxus sp. (yew).
Berry -- A simple, fleshy fruit with the seeds embedded in a pulpy mass. Examples: Berberis sp. (barberry) and Lonicera sp. (honeysuckle).
Capsule -- A simple, dry fruit that is the product of a compound pistil splitting along two or more suture lines. Examples: Populus deltoides (cottonwood), Salix sp. (willow), and Physocarpus sp. (ninebark).
Cone -- A fruit with overlapping scales. Examples: Pinus sp. (pine) and Juniperus sp. (juniper).
Drupe -- A simple, one-seeded, fleshy fruit; the outer wall is fleshy and the inner wall is bony. Examples: Cornus sp. (dogwood) and Celtis occidentalis (hackberry).
Follicle -- A single-chambered fruit that opens along one side. Examples: Magnolia sp. (magnolia) and Spiraea sp. (spirea).
Pod -- A dry fruit that is the product of a simple pistil usually dehiscing along two suture lines Examples: Gleditsia sp. (honeylocust), Gymnocladus dioicus (Kentucky coffeetree), and Caragana sp. (peashrub).
Multiple -- A cluster of ripened ovaries, traceable to the pistilsPistil of separate flowers and inserted on a common receptacle. Examples: Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) and Morus alba var. tatarica (mulberry).
Nut -- An indehiscent, usually one-celled, one-seeded fruit with a bony, woody, leathery, or papery wall. It is generally encased in an involucre or husk. Examples: Quercus sp. (oak), Juglans nigra (black walnut), Tilia sp. (linden), and Corylus americana (hazelnut).
Pome -- A fleshy fruit resulting from a compound ovaryOvary. Examples: Malus sp. (crabapple) and Amelanchier sp. (serviceberry).
Samara -- A winged, achene-like fruit. Examples: Acer sp. (maple), Ulmus sp. (elm), and Fraxinus sp. (ash).
Strobile -- An inflorescence (or cone) featured by imbricated bracts or scales. Example: Betula sp. (birch) and Salix amygdaloides (peach leaf willow).
Seedless -- No fruit. Examples: Populus x canadensis “Robusta (Robusta poplar), Acer x freemanii ‘Celzam’ (Celebration maple), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Marshall’s Seedless’ (Marshall’s seedless ash).

Growth Habit

Refers to the genetic tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain a certain mature height and spread. Typical form of the plant as it grows. Under Trees and shrubs this would be Branching Habit.

Growth Rate

Growth rate is a yearly measurement of shoot growth for an established plant. It assumes the site meets all of the plant’s requirements for normal health and vigor.
Slow -- 0 to 6 inches per year.
Medium -- 6 to 12 inches per year.
Fast -- 12 or more inches per year.

Growing Season

This is the season that this type of grass grows the best in.
Warm – This is typically the summer months when temperatures are higher. These grasses will be green during this time of year
Cool – This is typically the spring or fall seasons when the temperatures are cooler. These grasses tend to go dormant in the summer months.

Hardpan

A compacted layer formed in soil directly below the plowed layer.

Herbicide Usage

Four commonly used herbicides are discussed in this matrix.

2,4-D and dicamba may be used for plant selection. Picloram and clopyralid are included for information only.

2,4-D 2,4-D is a selective, translocated phenoxy compound used mainly as a post-emergence herbicide. It is used for broadleaf weed control in lawns, grounds maintenance in intensively managed turf, and for broadleaf brush control in extensively managed areas including utility and transportation corridors. Evidence of 2,4-D damage is twisting of any woody plant part, epinasty, and/or distorted leaf growth. Indicators of 2,4-D use include turf areas free of dandelions, small grain fields free of mustard, or a known history of using products with 2,4-D as an ingredient.
Yes -- There is evidence of 2,4-D use
No -- There is no evidence of 2,4-D use

Dicamba (Banvel and Vanquish) Dicamba is a benzoic acid derivative used as a pre-emergence and post-emergence, selective, translocated herbicide. It is commonly used in combination with other broadleaf herbicides (e.g. Trimec) in intensively managed turf areas for controlling chickweed, creeping Charlie, and other hard to control broadleaf weeds. Vanquish is a trade name for a formulation of dicamba used in extensively managed areas for controlling broadleaf weeds such as water hemlock. Evidence of dicamba damage is arrested leaf expansion and shoot elongation, unopened buds, and chlorotic, dwarfed, or distorted leaves. Indicators of potential dicamba use include turf areas that are generally free of dandelions and/or the presence of adjacent cornfields.
Yes -- There is evidence of dicamba use
No -- There is no evidence of dicamba use

Picloram (Tordon) Picloram is a picolinic acid compound used as a selective translocated post-emergence herbicide. It is used to control most annual and perennial broadleaf plants, including woody material. Evergreen trees and shrubs are susceptible to picloram. Most grasses are resistant at low rates, though at high rates picloram acts as a soil sterilant. It is the preferred herbicide for controlling leafy spurge and Canada thistle in extensively managed areas due to its effectiveness and low cost. Pilcoram application within the root zone of desirable woody plants may cause death or severe injury. Indicators of potential picloram use include dried thistle and leafy spurge stocks or stressed grass, showing a range of color from green to yellow to orange.

Clopyralid (Transline) Clopyralid (Transline) is a picolinic acid derivative that is used as a post-emergence, selective herbicide. It controls many broadleaf plants, especially composites and legumes. It is the preferred herbicide for controlling Canada thistle in informal landscape settings; when applied at the low application rates, it causes minimal damage to desirable woody plants. Clopyralid is used for prairie establishment site preparation in areas infested with Canada thistle, birdsfoot trefoil, and crown vetch. For crown vetch control, clopyralid must be used one season prior to seeding prairie grasses and forbs in order to minimize the death of emerging prairie seedlings. Clopyralid is an active ingredient in a mixture with Triclopyr (Garlon) sold under the trade name Confront. Confront is used as a broadleaf weed killer in turf, including lawns and grounds maintenance. Most woody plants are resistant to Confront; however, linden trees and sumac shrubs can show season-long leaf curling, even when applied at the manufacturer’s label rates.

Hydric

A soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen) in the upper part.

Hydrocarbons

Chemicals containing hydrogen and carbon.

Imbricated

With overlapping edges, as shingles on a roof.

Indehiscent

Not splitting open at maturity.

Inflorescence

A flower cluster of a plant; the arrangement of flowers on a stem.

Insect Concerns

See Pest Concerns

Insect Damage Susceptibility

Insects may be life-threatening and/or cause aesthetic problems requiring routine or extensive treatments. Some plants are more susceptible to insect damage than others.
Minor -- Insect pests may occur but are not considered life-threatening. Example: hackberry nipple-gall psyllid and spittlebugs.
Major -- The plant species is susceptible to one or more life-threatening insect pests, or to insect pests that cause aesthetic problems requiring routine or extensive treatments. Examples: bronze birch borer and mossy rose gall.

Inslope

The area between the road shoulder and the bottom of the ditch.

Inter-veinal

The area between the veins in a leaf.

Invasiveness

Some plants reproduce more freely than others.
Yes -- the plant has the potential of escaping into the surrounding landscape.
No -- the plant does not escape into the surrounding landscape.

Leaf Margin

The edge of a leaf.

Legumes

Plants in the pea family (Fabaceae).

Life Expectancy

The choices assume that the site meets all of the plant’s requirements for normal health and vigor.
Short -- Between 0 and 30 years old.
Medium -- Between 30 and 100 years old.
Long -- More than 100 years.

Life Span

The typical amount of time an individual plant will live.

Limiting Layer

A limiting layer is anything that blocks the passage of water through the soil profile. (Example: a rock layer, impermeable soil, etc.)

Mantle

A layer of disintegrated and decomposed rock fragments, including soil (sand), just above the solid rock of the earth’s crust.

Maintenance Requirements

Maintenance Requirements The frequency of human care and amendments required to promote and sustain normal plant health and vigor under varied environmental conditions. This assumes the plant is established and compatible with the site location and conditions. Choose the intended landscape formality and maintenance level.

Formal Landscapes where the intended arrangement, patterns and attractiveness of turf areas and plants, as individuals or a mass, are sustained. A formal landscape will require some or all of these human actions: mowing, watering, weeding, clean-up (branch, leaf, fruit, or seed litter), dead-heading, fertilization, pruning, mulching and insect/disease control.

Informal or Natural Landscapes where the intended arrangement, patterns or individual attractiveness of turf areas and plants, as individuals or a mass, are allowed to freely evolve. An informal or natural landscape may require some or all of the following human actions: mowing, weed control, insect/disease control, and periodic hazard tree pruning or removal.

Formal                     ___Low     ___Medium     ___High
Informal or Natural   ___Low     ___Medium     ___High 

General Maintenance Levels (Assumes typical patterns of weather, precipitation, and external conditions)

High -- At least one human action is required weekly to monthly during the growing season to maintain the individual plant’s health, presence, and function.
Medium -- At least one human action is required two to four times during the growing season to maintain the individual plant’s health, presence, and function.
Low -- No human action is required more than once in a growing season to maintain the individual plant’s health, presence, and function.

Mesic

Historically moist to moderate soil water content, and well-drained.

Minimum Depth to Water Table

The water table, measured in inches or centimeters, is the level at which the ground is usually saturated with water.

Moisture Regime

Refers to the relative amount of water in soil. Soil moisture regimes range from soils with groundwater on the surface part of the year to those with unavailable water much of the year. Regimes are based mainly on the number of consecutive days that the soil control section (soil depth from about 4” to 12”) is dry. Factors such as runoff, climate, drainage, and slope direction contribute to the soil moisture regime.
Dry -- Historically low soil water content. Sometimes referred to as xeric.
Moist -- Historically moist to moderate soil water content (not wet and not dry), and well-drained. This is the most commonly found soil moisture regime. Sometimes referred to as mesic.
Wet -- Soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen) in the upper part. Sometimes referred to as hydric.

Mottling

Spots of color (ranging from rust to blue, gray, and green tints) indicating periods of inadequate soil aeration each year due to the soil being waterlogged. The blue to green color range indicates long periods of waterlogged conditions. Mottled soils are not conducive to proper plant growth.

Mycorrhizae

Root structures created when young lateral plant roots are invaded by specific fungi. This is a mutually beneficial relationship. Myco means fungus and rhiza means root.

Native

A plant that was present in a defined area within Minnesota before European settlement (circa 1850). A defined area may be a site, region, or state.

Necrosis

Death associated with discoloration and dehydration of all or parts of plant organs, such as leaves.

Nodulating Bacteria

A rhizobium bacteria that forms a symbiotic relationship with a host legume plant, causing nodules (swelling or distortion).

Open Panicle

An elongated inflorescence (flower cluster) with compound branching that gives an open appearance. Example: Panicum virgatum (switch grass).

Ovary

The structure that encloses the ovules in angiosperms. The expanded base of the pistil, containing the ovules.

Oxidants

Chemical receptor that readily accept electrons. The electron receptor is reduced in a chemical reaction.

Permeability

The ease with which gases or liquids pass through a material. Example: soil.

Pest Concerns

The insect or disease related issues a plant has.

Petiole

A leaf stalk.

Phenoxy

A family of phytotoxic substances that are used as herbicides in the form of the parent acids, or more commonly as salts and esters. Example: 2,4-D.Phloem -- Conducting tissue that brings sugars, manufactured in the leaves, to the roots. Also called inner bark.

Phloem

Conducting tissue that brings sugars, manufactured in the leaves, to the roots. Also called inner bark.

Photochemical

Of, relating to, or resulting from the chemical action of radiant energy, especially light.

Phototoxic

Susceptible to damage by light.

Physiographic

Physical geography; the description of nature in general.

Phytotoxic

Toxic to plants.

Pistil

The female organ of a flower, composed of one or more carpels, and ordinarily differentiated into the stigma, style, and ovary.

Place of Origin

Plants nativeNative to one region of the world will grow in other regions if the conditions are appropriate. Some people prefer to plant species native to the particular region where their site is located. The Minnesota Society of Arboriculture’s zones 1-6 are based on the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources ecological classification system boundaries.
Plants native to one region of the world will grow in other regions if the conditions are appropriate. Some people prefer to plant species native to the particular region where their site is located. The Minnesota Society of Arboriculture’s zones 1-6 are based on the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources ecological classification system boundaries.
Zone 1 -- Anoka Sand Plain, Big Woods, Oak Savanna, and Paleozoic Plateau.
Zone 2 -- Chippewa Plains, Mille Lacs Uplands, Saint Louis Moraines, Pine Moraines and Outwash Plains, and Tamarack Lowlands.
Zone 3 -- Agassiz Lowlands, Border Lakes, Glacial Lake Superior Plain, Laurentian Highlands, Littlefork-Vermillion Uplands, North Shore Highlands, Nashwauk Uplands.
Zone 4 -- Aspen Parklands and Hardwood Hills.
Zone 5 -- Northern Tallgrass Prairie.
Zone 6 -- Minnesota River Prairie and Prairie Coteau
Any Minnesota
Any North America
Any Asia
Any Siberia
Any Europe

Plant Community

This category describes the dominant plant community in the area near your site.
Forest -- The vegetative cover is 50% or greater tree cover and the trees form a closed canopy.
Savanna -- The vegetative cover is 5 to 50% tree cover with grasses growing amongst the trees.
Grasslands -- The vegetative cover is 50% or greater grasses and less than 5% tree cover.
Dune -- The vegetative cover is less than 50%. The terrain is flat with rocky or sandy soils.
Open Cliff -- The vegetative cover is less than 50%. The terrain is on a steep slope exposed to full sunlight. The soil is rocky or sandy.
Shaded Cliff -- The vegetative cover is less than 50%. The terrain is on a steep slope shaded by land features or trees. The soil is rocky or sandy.
Old Field -- The area has been disturbed and receives full exposure to the sun and wind. Examples include abandoned farm fields, pastures, and roadsides.
Bog -- A specialized wetland type found on saturated, acid peat soils. The vegetative cover is herbs, low shrubs, and trees growing on a mat of sphagnum moss.
Forest Edge -- The area is in full sun and/or partial shade on the edge of a forest.
Inland Fresh Meadow -- The vegetative cover is dominated by perennial forb, grass, and sedge mixtures growing on saturated soils. Standing water is usually present during floods and snowmelt. Inland fresh meadows include sedge meadows, fresh (wet) meadows, low prairies, and calcareous fens.
Marsh -- The vegetative cover is dominated by cattails, bulrushes, and other aquatic plants on soils that are saturated to inundated. Marshes may be deep or shallow.
Wooded Swamp -- The vegetative cover in Minnesota is divided into two types: coniferous swamps and lowland hardwood swamps. The soils are saturated during much of the growing season and may be inundated by as much as a foot of standing water. Coniferous swamp soils are usually organic (peat/muck) with variable pH and nutrient levels.
Don't Know -- Click on this if you are unsure of the type of vegetative cover or if you want to choose from all plants.

Plant Height

Identify the vertical dimensions of the site so that the plant’s mature height will be accommodated. You may select a maximum height, a minimum height, or a range. 
Maximum -- Identifies the maximum height the site permits. Account for obstacles (trees, buildings, power lines, etc.) that might prevent the plant from growing beyond a certain height. 
Minimum -- Identifies the minimum height of the plant when it is mature.

Plant Spread

Identify the horizontal dimensions of the site so that the plant’s mature spread will be accommodated. You may select a maximum spread, minimum spread, or a range.
Maximum -- Identifies the maximum spread the site permits. Account for obstacles (trees, buildings, etc.) that will prevent the plant from growing beyond a certain width.
Minimum -- Identifies the minimum spread you would like the plant to grow.

Pollution Sensitivity

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) - A pollutant from the combustion of fossil fuel, oil refining, ore smelting, and the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Symptoms vary with each plant species. For example, alfalfa shows a bleaching appearance between leaf veins as well as on leaf margins; bracken fern shows orange-red on the margins of the frond (leaf); white birch and aspen show reddish-brown (darkening with age) inter-veinalInter-veinal and leaf margin injury; and white and jack pine show orange-red colored needles. All of these plants are considered good indicator plants of SO2 injury.
Tolerant -- The plant readily recovers or shows no signs of ill effect.
Intermediate -- The plant shows signs of injury or stress, but has no permanent damage.
Sensitive -- The plant is severely damaged.

Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) -- A pollutant from the combustion of fuels, accidental releases, or spills where nitric acid is manufactured or near electroplating, engraving, welding, or metal-cleaning operations. On a world-wide basis, bacteria produce about ten times more NO than the combined total of NO and NO2 emissions related to human activities. The indirect effect of NOX on vegetation, through its key role in forming highly phototoxic photochemical oxidants like ozone, is more important than its direct effects. The direct effects are usually in localized areas only and are not common. Symptoms vary from species to species and even from cultivar to cultivar, within a species. There are no common plants that serve as biological indicators. Chronic exposure to NO2 produces chlorosis and necrosis. The damage can easily be confused with other pollutants or nutrient deficiencies.
Tolerant -- The plant readily recovers or shows no signs of ill effect.
Intermediate -- The plant shows signs of injury or stress, but has no permanent damage.
Sensitive -- The plant is severely damaged.

Ozone (O3) -- A pollutant produced naturally by sunlight action and artificially by photochemical reactions involving hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Hydrocarbons arise during the incomplete combustion of petroleum products, of which transportation sources account for more than half of the total emissions. The most common symptoms on broadleaf plants are small flecks or stipples visible on the upper leaf surface. The most common symptoms on grasses and grains are small chlorotic spots or white flecks between the veins. Symptoms commonly observed on coniferous plants include “chlorotic mottles” (small patches of yellow tissue surrounded by healthy green tissue) and “tipburn.”
Tolerant -- The plant readily recovers or shows no signs of ill effect.
Intermediate -- The plant shows signs of injury or stress, but has no permanent damage.
Sensitive -- The plant is severely damaged.

Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) -- A pollutant produced in the manufacture of bricks, steel, aluminum, superphosphate fertilizer, etc., the combustion of coal, and several other more minor manufacturing processes. Symptoms on broadleaf plants include chlorosis (yellowing or paling of green parts of plants) and/or necrosis (death of tissue). The symptoms start at the leaf tip and extend toward the base of the leaf from the tip or toward the middle of the leaf from the margins. The most popular biological indicator of fluoride effects is gladiolus, which shows necrosis of some outer portions of the leaf. Coniferous plants also show necrosis of the outer portions, or tip, of the needle.
Tolerant -- The plant readily recovers or shows no signs of ill effect.
Intermediate -- The plant shows signs of injury or stress, but has no permanent damage.
Sensitive -- The plant is severely damaged.

Ponding

Standing water on soils in closed depressions that is removed only by percolation or evapo-transpiration.

Post-emergence

Applied after the specified weed or crop emerges.

Pre-emergence

Applied to the soil prior to the specified weed or crop emerges.

Primary Branches

Branches extending from the main tree trunk.

Reproduce More Freely

The plant spreads to adjacent areas by seed dissemination or vegetatively by a suckering-type root system.

Rhizome

An underground stem distinguishable from a root by the presence of nodes, buds, or scale-like leaves.

Root Pattern

The lateral growth pattern that the root system of the plant takes. Example: Lateral is extending out from the trunk of the plant.
Shallow Lateral – Most of the roots are shallow to the ground surface, within the top 6” of soil.
Deep Lateral – Most of the root system is deeper than 6” from the ground surface.

Root Type

The root type describes the structure of the root system. Root systems affect and are affected by such things as soil conditions, septic systems, and underground utilities.
Deep -- A spreading, fibrous, mat-like root system that may extend to a depth greater than 4 feet. Examples: Pinus nigra (Austrian pine), Gleditsia sp. (honeylocust).
Shallow -- A spreading, fibrous, mat-like root system that may extend to a depth of four feet. Examples: Picea glauca densata (Black Hills spruce), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash).
Taproot -- A carrot-like root which may extend to a depth of 15 feet or more. Examples: Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine), Crataegus sp. (hawthorn), and Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak).

Root Zone

The area where roots grow in the soil, vertically and horizontally.

Saline

Salty or salt-like.

Salt Spray

Salt spray is determined by the site’s distance from the road and the average daily traffic (ADT) volume. Some plants tolerate salt spray better than others. Relative plant tolerances are defined as follows:
Sensitive -- Deciduous woody plants exhibit bud kill and twig dieback that makes the plants unsightly (witches broom), reduces growth and may eventually cause plant death. Evergreen trees exhibit needle browning, reduced growth, and may eventually die. Plants rarely flower. (Examples—eastern white pine, American linden). Herbaceous plant damage is less conspicuous and may result in death of mature plants and high seedling mortality.
Moderate -- Plants exhibit lesser degrees of dieback, disfigurement, and growth reduction. During most years the aesthetic impact is visible but acceptable. (Examples—Amur maple, green ash)
Tolerant -- Plants show little evidence of dieback and disfigurement except at high ADT and close proximity to the road. (Examples—honeylocust, Siberian peashrub) 10 The following table interprets the ADT and distance relationship. See Table 12 of reference 134 for more details and the research basis.
ADT (000) 0’ – 7’ 8’ – 29’ 30’ – 44’ 45’ – 64’ 65’ – 84’ 85’ – 149’ >149’
0 – 9 No Plants Moderate Moderate Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive
10 – 19 No Plants Tolerant Tolerant Moderate Moderate Sensitive Sensitive
20 – 39 No Plants No Plants Tolerant Moderate Moderate Moderate Sensitive
40 – 59 No Plants No Plants Tolerant Tolerant Tolerant Moderate Moderate
60 – 79 No Plants No Plants Tolerant Tolerant Tolerant Moderate Moderate
> 79 No Plants No Plants No Plants Tolerant Tolerant Moderate Moderate

Scarification

Pregerminative treatment to make seed-coats permeable to water and gases; accomplished usually by mechanical abrasion or by soaking seeds briefly in a strong acid or other chemical solution.

Scientific Name

The name by which a plant is known in the horticultural and nursery industries, sometimes known as the botanical name. The scientific name is universally accepted. Scientific names always list a genus and species: Example: genus = Acer and species = saccharinum.

Shrub Form

Shrub form describes the general shape of a shrub. The forms do not identify a specific species. For example, both the Syringa vulgaris (common lilac) and the Juniperus sabina (Savin juniper) are upright.
Prostrate -- The branches lie flat on the ground and grow horizontally. Examples: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry) and Pinus mugo (mugho pine).
Spreading -- The branches grow outward or horizontally. Examples: Juniperus chinensis ‘Pfitzeriana’ (Pfitzer juniper) and Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac).
Mounded -- The plant exhibits a broad, elliptic form with branches reaching the ground. Examples: Corylus americana (American hazelnut) and Eleagnus commutata (silverberry).
Climbing -- The plant uses other plants or objects for vertical support. Examples: Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston ivy) and Parthenocissus inserta (woodbine ivy).
Irregular -- Asymmetrical branches create an uneven outline. Examples: Acer ginnala (Amur maple) and Eleagnus angustifolia (Russian olive).
Upright -- The primary branches are nearly or slightly vertical. Examples: Caragana sp. (peashrub) and Physocarpus sp. (ninebark).
Rounded -- The crown is spherical. Examples: Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus), Syringa patula ‘Miss Kim’ (Miss Kim lilac).
Upright Rounded -- The primary branches are nearly vertical with a rounded top. Examples: Prunus nigra ‘Princess Kay’ (Princess Kay plum) and Spiraea vanhouteii (Vanhoutte spirea).
Globular -- The crown is circular with equal horizontal and vertical spread. Examples: Thuja occidentalis ‘Woodwardii’ (Woodward globe arborvitae) and Prunus americana (American plum).
Columnar -- The branches form an upright, cylindrical silhouette. Example: Rhamnus frangula ‘Columnaris’ (columnar buckthorn).

Site Orientation

Site orientation refers to the direction a slope faces; its aspect. Site orientation measures direct sun exposure and can affect things such as soil temperature.
North facing -- Cool soil temperatures, protection from direct sun exposure, protection from prevailing winds.
South facing -- Warm soil temperatures, direct sun exposure, direct exposure to prevailing winds.
East facing -- Cool soil temperatures, protection from direct sun exposure, protection from prevailing winds.
West facing -- Warm soil temperatures, direct sun exposure, direct exposure to prevailing winds.
All -- No preference, plant can grow with all exposures.

Small Grain

Fruit or seed of a grass plant such as corn, barley, or wheat.

Soil Compaction

Soil compaction is measured per square inch to a depth of 18 inches. Soil compaction can have an effect on things such as soil drainage or a plant’s ability to put out roots. Use a soil compaction tester to determine the site’s compaction level.
Not Compacted -- Less than 200 pounds per square inch (1379 kPa).
Moderately Compacted -- Between 200 pounds per square inch (1379 kPa) and 300 pounds per square inch (2069 kPa).
Compacted -- More than 300 pounds per square inch (2069 kPa).

Soil pH

Soil pH measures acidity or alkalinity. Soil that tests to a pH of 7.0 is precisely neutral. The degree of acidity or alkalinity is expressed as:
Below 4.5 -- Extremely acid
4.5 to 5.0 -- Very strongly acid
5.1 to 5.5 -- Strongly acid
5.6 to 6.0 -- Medium acid
6.1 to 6.5 -- Slightly acid
6.6 to 7.3 -- Neutral
7.4 to 7.8 -- Mildly alkaline
7.9 to 8.4 -- Moderately alkaline
8.5 to 9.0 -- Strongly alkaline
Above 9.1 -- Very strongly alkaline

Soil Salt Content

Soil salt content levels may be seasonally high in the spring before road salt is flushed from the soil. This identifies the probable amount of damage that will occur to plants located within 30 to 40 feet of the road, with an average daily traffic (ADT) from 0 to 40,000 vehicles. Soil salt content is determined by a soil test.
Low -- 0 to 1 Mhos. Plants are not able to withstand the damaging effects of soil salt.
Moderate -- 1.1 to 2.5 Mhos. Caution should be used.
High -- 2.6 or more Mhos. Plants are able to withstand the damaging effects of soil salt.

Soil Texture

Soil texture identifies the proportion of mineral sand, silt, and clay particles in the soil, as determined by a soil test. The various textural classes have been arranged in a triangle.
Click on the appropriate area of the triangle to select:
Sand
Loamy Sand
Sandy Loam
Loam
Silty Loam
Silt
Sandy Clay Loam
Clay Loam
Silty Clay Loam
Sandy Clay
Silty Clay
Clay

Soil Water Holding Capacity

Soil water holding capacity is the difference between the amount of soil water at field moisture capacity and the amount at wilting point.  The water is available for use by most plants. Soil water holding capacity is determined by field-testing or a Soil Conservation Service soil survey.
Low -- The soil moisture holding capacity is 0 to 6 inches of water within a 60-inch soil profile or to a limiting layer.
Moderate -- The soil moisture holding capacity is 6 to 9 inches of water within a 60-inch soil profile or to a limiting layer.
High -- The soil moisture holding capacity is 9 to 12 inches of water within a 60-inch soil profile or to a limiting layer.

Spike

A usually unbranched, elongated, simple, indeterminate inflorescence whose flowers are sessile (lacking a stalk). The flowers may be congested or remote. Example: Sorghastrum nutans (Indiangrass).

Spring Foliage Color

The spring foliage season is from March 15 to June 15.
Green
Light Green
Dark Green
Yellow Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Purple
Brown
Gray
Bronze
Maroon
Insignificant
Not Applicable

Stand Persistence

Whether the plant will withstand the conditions of the site, including but not limited to Wind, Fire, Storms, Ice, and Snow.

Sterilant

Refers to herbicides; a chemical that kills all plant life and creates bare ground.

Stolon

An elongate, above-ground creeping stem. The stolon may root at the nodes and apex, developing new plantlets at those places. The term is sometimes also loosely applied to slender rhizomes near the surface of the ground. Example: strawberry.

Storm Damage

Storm damage is a measure of how frequently wind, ice, snow, and/or hail affect the plant’s shape and form. Typical damage includes broken branches and split trunks.
Infrequent -- The plant rarely sustains damage to its shape and/or form.
Frequent -- The plant often sustains damage to its shape and/or form.

Stratification

A pre-germinative treatment used to break dormancy in seeds and to promote rapid uniform germination; accomplished by exposing seeds for a specified time to moisture at near-freezing temperatures, sometimes with a preceding exposure to moisture at room temperature.

Successional

Vegetation in plant communities evolve until they reach a climax stage: the final result of succession. Early or pioneer species become established on bare or disturbed sites and are eventually replaced by climax species. A climax plant community is self-perpetuating with no further development possible under the existing climatic or physiographic conditions. Example: Pinus banksiana (jack pine) is a pioneer tree that begins growing after a fire, Abies balsamea (balsam fir) is a climax tree.

Successional Occurrence

This describes how vegetation in a plant community changes or evolves.
Early (Pioneer) -- A plant is capable of invading bare sites and persisting until succeeded by another plant species. Examples: Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen).
Middle (Intermediate) -- Also know as sub-climax. A plant to be succeeded by a late, or climax species. Examples: Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine) and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash).
Late (Climax) -- The final result of succession; a self-perpetuating plant community with no further development possible under the existing climatic or physiographic conditions. Examples: Tilia americana (basswood) and Abies balsamea (balsam fir).

Summer Foliage Color

The summer foliage season is from June 15 to September 15.
Green
Light Green
Dark Green
Yellow Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Purple
Brown
Gray
Bronze
Maroon
Insignificant
Not Applicable

Summer Texture

Summer texture refers to the general appearance of a tree based on the size and number of leaves, the coarseness of the bark, and the type of branching. It is the result of the detailed structure of the plant growth or of the total plant mass, influenced by the distance from which a plant is viewed. Up close, the texture of individual plant parts becomes more important than form.
Texture is subtly influenced by leaf spacing, leaf shape and division, leaf surface quality, and/or petiole length and stiffness. Some plants are fine, medium, or coarse all year, while others are fine or medium in summer, yet coarse in winter. This definition considers a plant’s overall appearance--how a plant is generally seen in the landscape.
Fine -- Small leaves and leaflet relative to the plant size. Example: Gleditsia sp. (honeylocust).
Medium -- Medium leaves and leaflets relative to the plant size. Example: Fraxinus sp. (ash).
Coarse -- Large leaves and leaflets relative to the plant size. Example: Catalpa speciosa (catalpa).

Sunscald

Dead or injured bark and cambium due to intense winter sunshine, followed by severe cold night temperatures or extreme, fluctuating temperatures.

Superphosphate Fertilizer

A product resulting from the mixing of equal quantities of sulfuric acid and phosphate rock. It is more readily available to plants than other forms of rock phosphate.

Suture

A seam or line of fusion usually applied to the vertical lines along which a fruit may dehisce.

Sweating

A procedure required for some plants before planting to help them break dormancy. To sweat plants, create a warm (45° to 70°F), humid condition by covering them with moist mulch, then wrap the plants in plastic until the buds break open.

Textures

This refers to the appearance of the plant material. Summer textures takes into consideration the type of leaves, size of the branches and types of fruit on the trees. Winter textures takes into consideration the branching habit, number of branches and/or twigs and size of the branches.

Tip Dieback

Injury to the tips of twigs or leaves due to cold temperatures, de-icing salts, disease, insects, and other factors.

Topography

Topography describes the site’s surface configuration, contours, slopes, and drainage patterns.
Upland -- The site is at a higher elevation than an alluvial plain or stream terrace. For roadside plantings, the site is above lowlands or a ditch bottom and along the ditch's upper inslope or back slope.
Lowland (stable water) -- Lowlands that have a relatively stable water regime, such as spruce or tamarack bogs or black ash swamps.
Lowland (flood prone) -- The normal flood plain of a stream, subject to frequent flooding.
Wetland -- The site is subject to standing water for a period of 7 days or more. Hydric soils and wetland vegetation are present.

Toxicity

The degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism.

Translocated

The movement of substances from one location to another within a plant.

Tree Form

Tree form describes the general shape of a tree. The forms do not identify a specific species. For example, both the Tilia cordata (little leaf linden) and Picea pungens (Colorado spruce) are pyramidal.
Upright Rounded -- The primary branches are nearly vertical and the top of the crown is rounded. Example: Salix pentandra (laurel leaf willow) and Cornus alternifolia (pagoda dogwood).
Conical -- The cone-shaped crown is broadest at the base. Examples: Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Picea glauca densata (Black Hills spruce), and Picea pungens (Colorado spruce).
Irregular -- Asymmetrical branches create an uneven outline. Examples: Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Acer negundo (boxelder).
Upright -- The primary branches are either nearly or slightly vertical. Examples: Ulmus americana (American elm), and Amelanchier canadensis (shadblow serviceberry).
Rounded -- The crown is spherical. Examples: Acer platanoides (Norway maple) and Catalpa speciosa (catalpa).
Pyramidal -- The crown is broadest at the base, gradually narrowing to a point at the top. Examples: Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), Tilia americana ‘Redmond’ (Redmond linden), and Pinus nigra (Austrian pine).
Spreading -- The branches grow outward or horizontally. Examples: Malus ‘Red Splendor’ (Red Splendor crabapple) and Gleditsia triacanthos ‘Impcole’ (imperial honeylocust).
Weeping -- The branches are drooping or hanging. Example: Betula pendula ‘Darlecarlica’ (cutleaf weeping birch).
Globular -- The crown is circular with equal horizontal and vertical spread. Examples: Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech) and Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory).
Columnar -- The branches form an upright cylinder. Examples: Juniperus virginiana (Eastern red cedar), Populus x canescens ‘Tower’ (tower poplar).

Triclopyr (Garlon)

A selective, systemic herbicide used to control woody and broadleaf plants. Used on public rights-of-way, in forests, on industrial lands, and grasslands.

Trimec

A broadleaf herbicide containing 2,4-D, mecoprop, and dicamba.

Trunk Diameter

The diameter of the trunk of the tree measured at a point just above the Trunk Flare; about 6” off the ground.

Trunk Flare

The basal flare is the enlarged area just above the roots and below the base of the trunk.

Type I Hypersensitvity

Type I Hypersensitvity is an allergic reaction provoked by re-exposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.

USDA Hardiness Zone Map

The USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Hardiness Zone map identifies average minimum temperatures by zones. Winter temperatures affect a plant’s ability to survive. Minnesota’s hardiness zones include 2, 3A, 3B, 4A, and 4B.
Zone 2B -- -40 to -45 degrees F (-40 to -42.7 degrees C).
Zone 3A -- -35 to -40 degrees F (-37.3 to -40 degrees C).
Zone 3B -- -30 to -35 degrees F (-34.5 to -37.2 degrees C).
Zone 4A -- -25 to -30 degrees F (-31.7 to -34.4 degrees C).
Zone 4B -- -20 to -25 degrees F (-28.9 to -31.6 degrees C).
Zone 5A -- -15 to -20 degrees F (-26.2 to -28.8 degrees C).
Zone 5B -- -10 to -15 degrees F (-23.4 to -26.1 degrees C).
Zone 6A -- -5 to -10 degrees F (-20.6 to -23.3 degrees C).
Zone 6B -- 0 to -5 degrees F (-17.8 to -20.5 degrees C).
Zone 7A -- 5 to 0 degrees F (-15.0 to -17.7 degrees C).
Zone 7B -- 10 to 5 degrees F (-12.3 to -15.0 degrees C).
Zone 8A -- 15 to 10 degrees F (-9.5 to -12.2 degrees C).
Zone 8B -- 20 to 15 degrees F (-6.7 to -9.4 degrees C).
Zone 9A -- 25 to 20 degrees F (-3.9 to -6.6 degrees C).

Utility Lines

Utility lines are a concern when the proposed plants will be within 35 horizontal feet and will grow to exceed 30 feet in height.
Utility Lines Present -- Limits the search to those plants compatible with utility lines.

Wildlife Utilization

Wildlife utilization rates how many animal species use a plant's fruit, flowers, pollen, leaves, etc.
Low -- 0 to 14 species. Examples: Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash) and Ginkgo biloba (gingko).
Moderate -- 15 to 25 species. Examples: Betula paperifera (paper birch) and Tilia americana (American linden).
High -- 26 or more species. Examples: Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Picea glauca densata (Black Hills spruce).

Wilting Point

The percentage of soil moisture held so strongly that it is unavailable to plants. A soil is said to be at the permanent wilting point if a plant wilts beyond recovery without added water

Windbreak Suitability

Windbreak suitability groups are a guide for selecting tree and shrub species suited for specific soil types and site conditions and for predicting plant height growth on these soils. To design an effective windbreak, consult with the Soil and Water Conservation District or the Natural Resource Conservation Service.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 1
Description: This group is dominated by deep and moderately deep, somewhat poorly drained, and moderately well-drained soils with a moderately high water table. permeability ranges from rapid to moderately slow. This group also includes excessively to somewhat poorly drained soils that are subject to flooding. There are two subgroups.

WSG-1 -- Those that lack free carbonates in the upper 20 inches and are non-saline. They may be mildly alkaline.
WSG-1K -- Those that have free carbonates and are normally moderately or mildly alkaline within 20 inches of the surface. These soils may be slightly saline (2-8 mmhos/cm electrical conductivity).

Limitations: Seedling mortality may be moderate in WSG-1K because the free carbonates in these soils can tie up minerals and limit their availability.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 2
Description: This group is dominated by deep and moderately deep, poorly, and very poorly drained soils with a high water table. They have been artificially drained. permeability is variable. A few of these soils may be subject to flooding not severe enough to adversely affect tree growth. There are four subgroups.

WSG-2 -- Those that lack free carbonates in the upper 20 inches. Some may be mildly alkaline. They are non- saline.
WSG-2K -- Those that have free carbonates and are normally moderately or mildly alkaline with 20 inches of the surface. These soils may be slightly saline (2-8 mmhos/cm electrical conductivity).
WSG-20 -- Those that are very poorly drained, depressional soils with organic materials more than 16 inches thick.
WSG-2W -- Those that are poorly drained, depressional soils that are subject to ponding. Included are soils with organic surfaces up to 16 inches thick.

Limitations: Seedling mortality will be moderate in WSG-2 and WSG-2K mainly because of poor drainage, while very poor drainage in WSG-2W and WSG-20 will cause mortality to be severe. Spring planting may be delayed because of wet conditions. Seedling mortality may be moderate in WSG-2K because the free carbonates in these soils can tie up minerals and limit their availability.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 3
Description: This group is dominated by deep and moderately deep, well and moderately well-drained loamy and silty soils. permeability is moderate or moderately slow. These soils lack free carbonates in the upper 20 inches and are non- saline.

Limitations: Water erosion will be severe on slopes greater than 15%.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 4
Description: This group is dominated by well, moderately well, or somewhat poorly drained soils with slow or very slow permeability. Some of these soils have a moderately high water table. There are three subgroups.

WSG-4L -- Those deep and moderately deep soils with silty or loamy surfaces.
WSG-4F -- Those soils with dense subsurface layers or with fragipans.
WSG-4C -- Those deep and moderately deep soils with clayed surfaces.

Limitations: Seedling mortality will be severe in WSG-4C because the high clay content will cause moisture stress in the seedling. Water erosion will be severe on slopes greater than 10% in WSG-4C, while it will be severe only on slopes greater than 15% in WSG-4L and WSG-4F.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 5
Description: The group is dominated by deep, excessively drained to moderately well-drained soils with a moderate available water capacity. These are predominantly fine sandy loam or sandy loam soils, but include soils with a sandy mantle over loamy material.

Limitations: Water erosion will be severe on slopes greater than 15%. Some vegetative cover should be left during the early years of establishment on the soils with a sandy mantle over loamy materials; they are subject to soil blowing. The soils with a sandy mantle over loamy material will also have moderate seedling mortality because of some moisture stress in the seedling.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 6
Description: This group is dominated by excessively drained to moderately well drained loamy soils which have sand and/or gravel or bedrock at depths of 20 to 40 inches. They have low to moderate water holding capacities. There are two subgroups.

WSG-6R -- Those soils with bedrock within 20 to 40 inches.
WSG-6G -- Those soils with sand and/or gravel within 20 to 40 inches.

Limitations: Water erosion will be severe on slopes greater than 15%.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 7
Description: This group consists of excessively drained or well-drained soils with low available water capacity. These are predominantly shallow soils with loamy sand or coarser textures and soils shallow (10” to 20”) to sand or gravel.

Limitations: Seedling mortality will be moderate because the low water holding capacity will cause moisture stress in the seedling. Water erosion will be severe on slopes greater than 15%. Some vegetative cover should be left during the early years of establishment because of the blowing soil.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 8
Description: The soils in this group are deep, excessively drained and well-drained, loamy soils which have free carbonates and are normally moderately or mildly alkaline within 20 inches of the surface.

Limitations: Seedling mortality may be moderate because the free carbonates in these soils can tie up minerals, limiting their availability. Water erosion will be severe on slopes greater than 15%.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 9S
Description: The soils in this group consist of somewhat poorly, poorly, and very poorly drained saline soils.

Limitations: Seedling mortality will be severe because of salt concentrations and the very poorly drained conditions in some soils. The species listed are those that would have some possibility of survival where barnyard drainage is or has taken place recently.

WINDBREAK SUITABILITY GROUP 10
Description: The group consists of soils or miscellaneous land types usually not recommended for windbreaks. One or more characteristics such as soil depth, texture, wetness, available water capacity, slope, or salts severely limit tree or shrub planting, survival, or growth. Onsite investigations may reveal that tree and shrubs plantings can be accomplished with special treatment.

Limitations: There are no tree or shrub species identified in this category.

Winter Browning

Browning of the foliage of evergreen trees or shrubs as a result of winter drying or burning. It is caused by great fluctuations in winter temperatures.

Winter Foliage Color

The winter foliage season is from December 15 to March 15.
Green
Light Green
Dark Green
Yellow Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Purple
Brown
Gray
Bronze
Maroon
Insignificant
Not Applicable

Winter Texture

Winter texture refers to the general appearance of a tree based on the coarseness of the bark and the type of branching. In the winter, texture is a product of the size, surface, spacing, grouping, and character of stems, and persisting seeds or leaves. Some plants are fine, medium, or coarse all year, while others are fine or medium in summer, yet coarse in winter. This definition considers a plant’s overall appearance--how a plant is generally seen in the landscape.
Fine -- There are few major branches, prolific small diameter twigs, and closely spaced branching. Example: Salix nigra (black willow).
Medium -- The branch and twig structure ranges between fine and coarse. Example: Acer saccharum (sugar maple).
Coarse -- The branches and twigs are large and prominent, the branching is open. Example: Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak).

Woody

Vegetative structures that do not die back to the crown each year. Examples: branches, stems, or the trunk.

Xeric

Historically low soil water content.

Xylem

Conducting tissue that brings water and nutrients to the leaves. Also called sapwood.